Lexus is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corporation. First introduced in 1989 in USA, Lexus is sold globally and has become the largest-selling makes of premium cars in Japan. The Lexus marque is marketed in over 70 countries and fields around the world, and has ranked among the Japanese brand ten largest global in market value. The Lexus is headquartered in Nagoya, Japan. Service Operational located in Brussels, Belgium and Torrance, California, USA.
Lexus from a secret flagship sedan project, F1 code-named, which began in 1983 and led to the launch of the original Lexus LS in 1989. Later, the division added sedan, coupe, convertible, and SUV models. Until 2005 was not in a Lexus as a brand in its home market, and all vehicles marketed internationally as the Lexus from 1989-2005 were released in Japan under the marque of Toyota and equivalent model name. In 2005, the hybrid version of the crossover Rx intervened, and later additional hybrid models joined the division’s. In 2007, Lexus launched its F marque performance division with the debut of the F sport sedan, followed by the supercar LFA in 2009.
From the beginning of production, Lexus vehicles were produced in Japan, and manufacturing center of Chubu and Kyushu regions, and especially at Toyota Tahara, Chubu Aichi, and Miyata, Fukuoka, Kyushu plants. Assembly of first Lexus built outside the country, the Ontario, Canada-produced Lexus Rx 330, began in 2003. After a corporate from 2001 to 2005, Lexus and personal works in the design, engineering, manufacturing and its institutions, responsible for the division’s vehicles .
Since the 2000s, Lexus has increased sales outside its largest market, the USA, through an ongoing expansion global. The division inaugurated dealerships in local markets in Japan in 2005, she became the first Japanese premium car marque to implement the land of its origin. Debuts Further in Southeast Asia, Latin America, Europe, and other regions export in the years since. The division has also been expanded to reflect the regional model specifications and powertrain configurations.
In 1983, the chairman of Toyota Eiji Toyoda issued a challenge to build the best car in the world. This challenge prompted Toyota to start the project top-secret, code-named F1 (“Flagship One”). The F1 project, a finished product whose was ultimately Lexus LS 400, which is intended to improve the sedan is the flagship that would expand the product line Toyota, giving it a foothold in the premium and provides both long-time and new customers upmarket product. F1 project followed success of Toyota Supra sports car and the premium Toyota guns models.
Both Supra and guns were rear-wheel drive cars with a powerful 7M-GE / 7M-GTE inline-six engine. The largest sedan Toyota built during the limited-production, the 1960-vintage Toyota Century, its domestic, hand built, Limousine is the only V8-powered model, followed by the row and six Ned Toyota Crown premium sedan. Century was conservatively styled for the Japanese market, and together with the Crown and not planned export, although undergone a complete restyle in 1982 F1 designers targeted their new sedan international markets and began the development of a new V8 engine.
The name of the name Lexus has been attributed to a combination of the words “luxury” and “elegance,” and one of the idea that it is an acronym for “luxury exports to the US” According to Team One interviews, brand name has no specific meaning and simply means the image of luxury and technology. Just before the release of the first vehicles, service database LexisNexis found injunction forbidding the name Lexus being used as they may cause confusion for a while. The commission threatened to delay the launch and marketing division’s efforts. Upon reflection, a US appeals court lifted the injunction, deciding that there was little chance of confusion between the two products.
The original Lexus slogan, developed after Team One should visit the Lexus designers in Japan and notes the obsessive attention the details, “The Relentless Pursuit of Perfection.” The Lexus logo was developed by the Molly Designs and Hunter Communications. The final design of the Lexus logo featured a “L” stylized inside the oval, and, according to Toyota, try using precise mathematical formula. The first teaser ads featuring Lexus name and logo, designed by Team One, from Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York auto shows in 1988.
In 1993, Lexus launched the mid-size GS 300 sports sedan, based on the Toyota Risto using Toyota “S” platform from the Toyota Crown, which was sold two years before in Japan. The GS 300 was priced below the LS 400 the marque’s. In the same year, Lexus and became one of marques first to debut the certified pre-owned, with the aim of improving the trade-in model values. In 1994, the marque launch of the second generation LS 400, a complete re-model the system. In May 1995, sales are threatened by the US government’s proposal of 100% of the price on upscale Japanese cars in response to the widening US-Japan trade deficit. SUV were the proposed sanctions. Normal sales operations resumed by the end of 1995 when the Japanese auto manufacturers collectively agreed investment funds and American, and the prices were not hit.
In 2000, Lexus introduced the IS, a new series of entry-level sport sedans. In 2001, the marque entered its first convertible, the SC 430, a ES 300, and the third generation Lexus LS 430. The Lexus GX 470 mid-size SUV debuted in 2002, followed by Rx second generation 330 2003. The following year, Lexus recorded US two million of this car, and entered the first luxury-branded production hybrid SUV, the 400h Rx. The vehicle used Lexus Hybrid Drive system combined gasoline and electric motors for increased power, fuel efficiency, and the lower emissions relative fuel equivalents.
In 2006, Lexus began sales 450h GS, a sedan V6 hybrid performance and launched the fourth generation flagship LS line, including both standard- long wheelbase V8 (LS 460 and LS 460 L) and hybrid (LS 600h and LS 600h L) versions. Fifth generation ES 350 and debuted the same year. The LS 600h L later went on sale as the most expensive sedan ever produced in Japan, the sticker price $125,000. At the end of 2006, annual sales Lexus’ had reached 475,000 vehicles worldwide. In January 2007, Lexus announced a F marque performance of a new division, which would produce its racing-inspired models to work. The first of this line, the F, the debut of the 2007 North American International Auto Show, accompanied by a concept supercar, the LF-A.
In January 2012, the marque began sales of the fourth generation GS line, including the GS 350 GS 450h variants, and a low-displacement GS 250 model select markets. In April 2012, the sixth generation of the ES line, include the ES 350 and ES 300h variants, debuted at New York International Auto Show.
In August 2014, Toyota announced it would be cutting its Lexus spare parts prices in China by 35%. The company agreed to the move in response to the investigation foreshadowed earlier in the month by China National Development and Reform Commission of Lexus spare parts policies, as part of the investigation of the industry-wide Regulator Chinese look at exorbitantly high prices being charged by automakers for spare parts and after-sales service.
Lexus Design and Technology
Lexus design has traditionally placed an emphasis on targeting a certain car. Since the beginning of the marque’s design targets have ranged from aerodynamics and ride quality to interior ergonomics. The backronym “IDEAL” used in the process of development. Each car is designed according to the standards of the product of nearly 500, known as the “Lexus musts,” criteria such as leather seat stitching. Design elements from the concept car the marque’s, LF series (including the 2003 LF-S 2004 LF-C), have been incorporated in production models.
In 2006, Lexus is regarded the first eight speed automatic transmission car with the LS 460 and the gearbox later adapted for the GS 460 and IS F model. Continuously variable spirit, regenerative brakes, and the electric motors have been used on all Lexus hybrid models. In 2007, the Lexus executives signaled intentions to equip models with hybrid powertrains, catering to the demands of the decline in both the carbon pollution and oil dependency. Hybrid models have been differentiated by different edging and lighting technology, in 2008, the LS 600h L was the first production car to use LED headlamps.
Safety features on Lexus models based on the stability and handling systems (Vehicle Stability Control and Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management) to backup cameras, Swivel lamps, and sonar warning. The Lexus Pre-Collision System (PCS) includes many safety systems. In 2007, Lexus introduced first car safety systems with infrared and pedestrians to see the skills, lane keep assist, a Driver Monitoring System with face recognition to monitor the driver’s attentiveness, and form a pre-collision Whiplash protection, as part of the LS 460 PC.
Lexus introduced a new language design known as the “L-Finesse” in the mid-2000 of its concepts LF series and the 2006 Lexus GS. L-Finesse represented by three Japanese kanji characters which translate as “Intriguing Elegance, Incisive Simplicity, and the anticipation of Seamless”. Design features, including a fastback profile, low-set grille, and the use of both convex surfaces and between, are related to the Japanese cultural motifs (eg phrase KIRIKAESHI in Arrowhead shapes). Although the beginning of the Lexus models were criticized for styling reserved and derivative, and is often mistaken for understated domestic cars on the market, automotive design analyzes described in the L-Finesse adding a different nature embrace of Japanese design identity. Different ideas for debut L-Finesse about the GS, analysis Sports Car International praised the in-person appearance of the car Automobile Magazine criticized the daring of its styling, and compared to subsequent models for rival design is like.
The first Lexus vehicles manufactured in the flagship Toyota’s Tahara plant, a user, computer manufacturing plant in Japan. The Lexus production techniques include methods and standards of quality control that is incompatible with Toyota models. At the Tahara plant, the different assembly lines were developed for Lexus vehicles, and new molds and special equipment manufacturing. Welding processes, body panel fit tolerances, and the paint quality requirements are more stringent. Plant workers Lexus, usually a veteran experts, obtained with repeated performance evaluations and ranked according to their ability to grade, applicants are limited accepted. The highest quality Takumi (Japanese for “master”) engineers are responsible for maintaining the standards of production at key points in the process at the meeting, such as engine performance testing. Production cars are given a visual inspection of errors, each test-driven at high speed, and under vibration tests.
Through the 2000, most of the Lexus sedan and SUV production has occurred in Japan at the Tahara plant in Aichi and Miyata plant in Fukuoka. In addition to the factory Tahara, Lexus vehicles has been produced at the plant Miyata (Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc.) in MIYAWAKI, Fukuoka, Higashi Fuji plant (Kanto Auto Works, Ltd.) in Susono, Shizuoka, and Nage plant (Toyota Boshoku Corp., Buraco) in Toyota City, Aichi. Front-wheel drive vehicles, such as ES and HS, produced in plant Fukuoka Prefecture.The Kokura in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, which opened in 2008, is a place dedicated hybrid production for Lexus models such as Rx gasoline-electric. The North American market Rx 350 (from model year 2004) produced at the plant Cambridge (Toyota Canada, Inc.) in the city of Cambridge, Ontario, Canada, which is the first Lexus production site located outside Japan.
In 2005, JD Power and Associates has granted its Platinum award for worldwide plant quality on the Tahara plant for the fourth year in a row, stating that has the fewest features of any manufacturing plant in the world. In 2006, JD Power named Miyata plant site ES IS model and production, as a recipient of its Platinum award for plant quality worldwide in 2009 Higashi Fuji plant, the production site of the SC, received the same recognition.
Lexus first entered the arena More in 1999 when his racing unit, Team Lexus, fielded two GS 400 cars race in the Motorola Cup North American Stock Street Championship touring car series. In its 1999 annual event, Team Lexus achieved the first to win its sixth race at Road Atlanta. Led by the Sports Car Club of America and the International Motor Sports Association driver Chuck Golds-borough, based, Baltimore, Maryland, Team Lexus is included on the debut the first generation Lexus IS by three IS 300s in the third race 2001 Grand-Am Cup season at Phoenix, Arizona. Team Lexus won the first IS 300 its victory in that year at the Virginia International Raceway. In 2002, Team Lexus ‘efforts to compete in the Grand-Am Cup st1 (Street Tuner) class achieved to win the Drivers’ and Team Championships, and the sweep of the top three at Circuit Mont-Tremblant in Quebec, Canada.
After the release of the Lexus brand in the domestic Japanese market in 2005, Lexus fleet to four SC 430 coupes in the Super GT series of the All Japan Grand Touring Car Championship in the GT500 class. In the first race series 2006, SC 430 took the checkered flag, and drivers André Lotterer and Juichi Wakisaka raced the SC 430 to capture the GT500 championship for that year. In 2007, one of the SC 430 won GT500 opening round race. In 2006, Lexus raced hybrid car for the first time, into a GS 450h hybrid performance sedan in partnership with Sigma Advanced Racing Development at the Hours of Tokachi race in Hokkaido, Japan 24. Lexus Canada brought 450h GS in 2007 Targ Newfoundland’s event. In 2009, Lexus Super GT Team SC 430 and IS 350’s leading riders, won the GT500 and GT300 championships, respectively.
Since its inception, Lexus luxury has been advertised to consumers using specific marketing strategies, and a consistent design used for the ads marque’s. Since 1989, television ads were narrated by actor James Sloyan (the voice of “Mr. Lexus” until 2009), and keep up with the vehicles available to the onscreen unusual stunts. The first decade of Lexus markets (1989-99) consisted mainly number of definitions of words, such as “relentless,” “pursue” and “perfection,” and used cars greater precision, idling, and quiet interior comfort on the camera. Examples included a glass of champagne “Balance” (1989) and rolling “Ball Bearing” (1992). In the 2000, the markets included descriptions of aspects of the novel, the narrative or the onscreen events, and often referred to the competitor marque’s German.
Industry observers say that Lexus’ early marketing success at senior levels of perceived quality and lower prices than competitors, has helped the marque to attract consumers to upgrade from mass-market vehicles. Reputation for honesty, by the reliability of the survey, and was one of the main attracting new customers from rival premium. Lexus has since grown to command a higher premium price than the Japanese rival, some new models of increasing prices and reaching over US $ 100,000 category ultra-long luxury marques dominated by European rival.
Lexus’ marketing efforts have been extended to a sports charity event sponsorships, including the US Open tennis Grand Slam event in 2005 to 2009, and United States Golf Association US Open, US Women’s Open, US Senior Open, and US Amateur tournaments since 2007. Lexus has organized the annual Champions for Charity golf series in the US since 1989. Endorsement contracts have been signed with professional athletes Andy Roddick, Annika Sörenstam, and in Peter Jacobsen.